History of Calculation | History of calculating devices (part-II)

History of calculating Devices


In previous Part-I we have discussed Introduction to Counting Instruments, methods of calculation,  Sand Computers, Abacus, Counting Board, Analog Calculator, Napier Bones, Logarithm, Slide Rule, Pascal's calculator. 

for Part-I Click Here 

2.11 Calculator of Leibnitz:

 Got Freud Leibniz built a machine in 1671 that could directly, multiply. Earlier machines used to repeatedly add and subtract for multiplication and division. 

There was such a mechanism in this device that the digits could move to the right as in the process of multiplication. This (shift) action was the feature of this enumeration.

2.12 Punched Card:

 In 1725, Basil Busho, and in 1719, the French textile manufacturers, named Falcon, used paper laces with holes in them to make designs in clothing. 

Wherever there were holes in the paper, the needle would go in and solder the colored thread. These sheets of paper used to work as a memory for design.

After this, another French clothing manufacturer, Joseph Marie Jacord, in 1805 designed such a hand-loom in which designs were made with the help of cards. For this, several punchcards were added to the loom. 

On the cards where the holes were, the needles would draw the design to distinguish those places. These two conditions became the basis of a computer's binary or binary code (0/1), with no or no holes on the sheets. (Figure 2.8)

2.13 Other Mechanical Calculator:

In the eighteenth century, Ellie Whitney of America found a way to automate the design with the help of thousands of part molds. In 1820, Charles Xavier Thomas of France built a large-scale mechanical calculator called the Arthrometer.

2.14 Differential Engine of Charles Babbage:

Differential Engine of Charles Babbage

In 1823, Professor and Mathematician Charles Babbage of the University of Cambridge demonstrated his differential engine. With the help of this machine, algebraic expressions could calculate mathematical and statistical arrays with accuracy up to 20 digits. 

The basis of Babbage's Differential Angen was the theory of mathematics that the difference between certain fixed values ​​of some expressions of algebra is fixed in a certain step. In the given table, some values ​​of b = a3 are given, the difference of which becomes constant (6) in the third step.

2.15 Analytical Engine:

Differential engine was very successful, which excited Charles Babbage to imagine a computer called Analytical Engine.
Babbage's Analytical Engine
fig. 2.11 Babbage's Analytical Engine

(Figure 2.11) This computer had five parts:

  1. The storage unit (memory): This part of the engine used to store the numbers on which the arithmetic operations were to be done. At the same time, the numbers were also stored which are the result of any previous calculation and which are to be used later.
  2. Mill: Mill used to do the calculation work. The central processing unit (CPU) of today's computers is an improved form of this mill.
  3. Controller: It was the job of this part to instruct and control all parts of the machine.
  4. Input: It was the job of this unit to 'input' the data through punched cards.
  5. Output: Results were exited from this part.

Charles Babbage had envisioned that this engine could store at least a thousand numbers of 50 digits and 'automate' the calculation work by giving a 'program'. They thought that such a program should be made so that their angels could decide themselves.

This is the special thing that makes computers superior to calculators. This engine of Babbage had to take energy from the steam. It had such a system that if the necessary figures were not there, the bell would ring. 

The data were inserted by a punched card. It is a matter of sadness that Babbage's analytical engine could not become what he had imagined.

The main reason for this was that the use of electric energy was not common then and it was not easy to make complex instruments using the energy of steam. In any case, Babbage laid the foundation for modern 'digital' computers, due to which he is called the father of computer science.

Babbage wrote, 'Without the help of the principles made by me, it can be made by a man by simple mechanical methods based on any other principles, then I will surrender my reputation to him without any fear because the same person is the nature of my efforts and Will understand its importance. 

Babe's society could not understand the hidden pain in this matter. But today every student of computer science bends his head towards them for his invaluable contribution.

2.16 Lady Ada Lovelace:

Lady Ada Lovelace who was instrumental in the work of Charles Babbage was the daughter of Lord Byron, the great poet of England. In addition to Charles Babbage's assistance, Ada Lovelace also discovered the famous binary number method. 

This method was to be used in Babbage's analytical engine. Based on this method, Ada Lovelace created the world's first programming language. That is why it would not be wrong to call Ada the world's first programmer. 

Ada wrote in her diary, "Just as Jacquard's loom weaves flowers on clothes, the analytical engine weaves algebraic patterns." The language of computers used by the US Department of Defense in its honor was named 'Ada' in Ada's honor.

2.17 George Boole and Boolean algebra:

It is a common thing that in relation to anything or information, there can be only two situations. A moss is either there or not. In the same way, either an answer is correct or not. 

Georges Boole in his logical algebra shows the position of something to be right or to be 1 and to be wrong or not to be 0. In computer science also, the switch is displayed as 1 and the starting with 0. These 0 and 1 are called binary codes.

2.18 Herman Hollerith Punch Card Machine:

Punch Card Machine
fig. 2.12 Punch Card Machine

Herman Hollerith (Figure 2.12) was a mechanical engineer at the American Population Bureau. He created an 'electric tabulating system' to find out the population. In this method, data was stored with the help of holes in punched (pierced) cards, the cards filled with these data were placed on a tabulating machine.

The needles mounted on the tabulating machine used to read these data. When the needle moved through the hole made on the card, it would touch the mercury placed under the card, which would complete the circuit and move the needle one place on the dial on the tabulator.

With the help of this instrument, the census work lasting 5 years was completed in only two years. With this, Herman Hollerith's name became immortal in the history of computers.

Elections were also held in India exactly 100 years after this invention of Herman Hollerith, in which the help of computers was taken. 

In 1886, Herman Hollerith formed a firm called the Tabulating Machine Company, which later developed into IBM in 1924. IBM (International Business Machine) is the world's largest computer maker.

2.19 Electrical calculators of the first half of the twentieth century:

In 1924, IBM, including Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company and other similar American companies, was formed. 

The company was founded. This company was very successful in the field of data processing equipment, due to which many companies in America started making such devices.

In the year 1911, James Powers formed the 'Powers Accounting Machine Company' which later joined the tabulating machines division of 'Remington Rand Corporation', a world-renowned firm. 

The same corporation built Univac-1, the first commercial computer for population calculations in 1951.

In 1938, Claude Shenon created Boole's logical algebra using calculating instruments. Shortly thereafter, in 1940, George Steibitz of the Graham Bell Laboratory built his own 'complex computer' with the help of electric reels that could calculate complex numbers. 

450 electrical relays, an input keyboard and a teletypewriter (output) were added to this computer. Later Claude Shenon also came to the laboratory, where he continued his work.

2.20 Harvard Mark-1:

During World War II in 1939, Harvard University Professor Howard Aiken was involved in making a multipurpose computer. 

IBM for his support in this great work of his. K. Thomas Watson provided him with his equipment, staff and millions of dollars.

Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Howard Mark-1) invented by Professor Howard Aiken
fig.2.14 Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Howard Mark-1) invented by Professor Howard Aiken

This calculator was made in 1944, known as the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator Harvard-1 (Figure 2.14). 

Babbage's dream came true with this invention, the only difference being that simple arithmetic calculations could be done on an electrical system rather than a computer. Logical and triangular logics were also possible by this.

Although its name was a calculator, it could also decide on its own so it could also be called the world's first electric relay computer. With the help of mark-1, two, 20-digit numbers could be multiplied in just 5 seconds.

This speed cannot be called fast because it is less than today's pocket computers. It made a lot of noise running the computer and once it went bad it took a lot of time to fix it. 

An interesting anecdote is also associated with a malfunction in it. Once a whip (Mouth) got stuck, its circuit (circuit) was broken which took a lot of time to repair again.

The incident was written in the firm's log-book as follows, "Today Mark-1 has been debugged". Just then, the word 'de-bugging' became prevalent to remove any computer error.

2.21 German Computer:

Computer development took place rapidly before World War II as they were used in military equipment. The Germans and the Japanese did the most work in developing computers.

In 1936, Konrad Zeus built a mechanical computer Z1, which had 'keys' to insert data. This mechanical computer was later replaced by the electrically operated computer Z2, which included a 35 mm fast calculation. 

The reel of the wide film was put. In this reel figures were inserted through holes.

Hitler could not believe this computer that it would be able to understand the messages of enemies. 

Zeus made some improvements to it and then built Z3 and Z4 computers, which were later destroyed by bombing. But Juice did not disappoint. He formed a separate company which is 1969 merged with the world-renowned firm 'Siemens'.

During the World War, apart from Germany and Japan, Poland, Russia and Britain were also involved in making such computers. 

In Britain, a computer named 'Coalesus' was created under the supervision of Alan Turing, whose job was to understand the messages of 'Enigma', a computer coded messaging computer in Germany.

Later during the fighting, Poland's army stole this German computer 'Enigma'. All these computers built during this time used to work at a slow pace, even the method of taking work from them was not easy. 

Apart from this, they were also expensive, that is why scientists were engaged in the work of making good computers from them.

2.22 Development of Analog Computers:

In 1937, the British mathematician Alan Turing explained that any complex mathematical problem, can be solved easily by dividing it into small parts. 

According to the same principle, both analog and digital computers solve the problem by dividing it into small parts. Analog computers, as we have read, produce results based on a standard measurement that is not 100 percent accurate.

Analog computers based on differential calculus could be built with the development of electronics to give pure results. 

Fisher and Harris' Great Brass brains analog computer was created in 1914, which reported ocean tides and storms. In 1930, Vannevar Bush built an analog computer called the 'Differential Analyzer', which solved a lot of complex problems. 

The problem with analog computers was that they had to make some changes for each type of calculation.

for Part-I Click Here 

0/Post a Comment/Comments

your suggestions are always welcome !! thank you very much to visit.

Previous Post Next Post